It was built in 1886 in the centre of Baku and in 2003 it was fully restored and modernised. The State Road M-1 and the European route E60 are the two main motorway connections between Europe and Azerbaijan. From the late 18th century, Imperial Russia switched to a more aggressive geopolitical stance towards its two neighbours and rivals to the south, namely Iran and the Ottoman Empire. Towards the end of the 20th century much of the onshore petroleum had been exhausted, and drilling had extended into the sea offshore. British forces left before the end of 1919.. Retrieved 13 July 2011", "Closing ceremony of Cultural Year "Baku- Islamic Culture Capital-2009" conducted in Azerbaijan", Azerbaycan'da Gül Bayramı ve Aliyev'in doğum günü kutlanıyor, "IDEA campaign to hold Earth Hour action", "Baku's Architecture:A Fusion of East and West", "UNESCO celebrates World Cities Day designating 66 new Creative Cities", "Traditional hamams in all its glory in Baku", "Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre And Flame Towers", "Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower – UNESCO World Heritage Centre", "Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower", "Azerbaijan Will Open New Contemporary Art Center in 2015", "Meyxana", ya "bədihə" sözü aləmi bir-birinə qatıb, "Azerbaijan win Eurovision as Blue and Jedward finish mid-table", "Azerbaijan win Eurovision contest with Running Scared", "Baku International Jazz Festival has been opened in Azerbaijan", "Baku International Jazz Festival Official Site", "The Director-General hails the importance of living traditions at the Mugham Festival in Baku, Azerbaijan", "Battlefield 4 a sneaky screen from Baku", "Food and Restaurants in Azerbaijan and Baku", Beograd na vrhu liste gradova sa najboljim noćnim provodom, Экология и охрана окружающей среды в Азербайджане, "Euro 2020: England might have to play games at Hampden Park", "Azerbaijan is a country known for its love of sport and sportsmanship", "Chess players from 11 countries to join "Baku Open 2010. The population increased again from about 13,000 in the 1860s to 112,000 in 1897 and 215,000 in 1913, making Baku the largest city in the Caucasus region. The city walls of Baku were also rebuilt and strengthened. Mikayil Mushfig, Bakuvian poet and victim of the Stalinist purges.  Baku joined UNESCO's Network of Creative Cities as a Design City on 31 October 2019 on the occasion of World Cities' Day. By 1938, Germany’s total oil supply had risen to approximately 44 million ∴ barrels. Another and even less probable folk etymology explains the name as deriving from Baghkuy, meaning "God's town". Professor A. V. Williams Jackson of Columbia University wrote in his work From Constantinople to the Home of Omar Khayyam (1911): Baku is a city founded upon oil, for to its inexhaustible founts of naphtha it owes its very existence, its maintenance, its prosperity... At present Baku produces one-fifth of the oil that is used in the world, and the immense output in crude petroleum from this single city far surpasses that in any other district where oil is found. The year 1992 signaled the start of a new stage in oil production after the fall in output caused by the profound economic decline in … The capital of Azerbaijan, Baku ranked as the largest centre for the production of oil industry equipment before World War II. , 2005 was a landmark in the development of Azerbaijani jazz in the city. , Lotfi A. Zadeh, artificial intelligence researcher, founder of fuzzy mathematics, fuzzy set theory, and fuzzy logic. In 1917, after the October Revolution and amidst the turmoil of World War I and the breakup of the Russian Empire, Baku came under the control of the Baku Commune, which was led by veteran Bolshevik Stepan Shahumyan. Baku's growing importance as a major energy hub remained in sight of the major powers. Baga (now بغ bagh) and kuy are the Old Persian words for "god" and "town" respectively; the name Baghkuy may be compared with Baghdād ("God-given") in which dād is the Old Persian word for "give". During Soviet times, Baku, with its long hours of sunshine and dry healthy climate, was a vacation destination where citizens could enjoy beaches or relax in now-dilapidated spa complexes overlooking the Caspian Sea. 1927, Standard Oil and IG Farben founded the company „Standard IG Farben“; president was the oil dealer William Farish from Texas. Hitler did in fact take extraordinary measures to protect the oil fields that he had conquered including the Baku oilfields in Azerbaijan (Russia) pictured above. By the 29th of October they were 50km form Grozny. By 1900 the city had more than 3,000 oil wells, of which 2,000 were producing oil at industrial levels. This need was so critical – and the vulnerability to problems was felt so keenly in Berlin – that Hitler had directed the German summer-1942 offensive not at Moscow, but at Baku. The further etymology is unclear. Many clubs that are open until dawn can be found throughout the city. Shipping services operate regularly from Baku across the Caspian Sea to Turkmenbashi (formerly Krasnovodsk) in Turkmenistan and to Bandar Anzali and Bandar Nowshar in Iran. Join in if you dare!  International and local exhibitions are presented at the Baku Expo Centre. Other prominent residents include: Academy Award winners Rustam Ibrahimbeyov and Vladimir Menshov, and famous musicians such as Gara Garayev and Vagif Mustafazadeh. Indeed, it does feel incredibly odd though that they ‘cut corners’ in this aspect of the invasion when they poured so much resources into far less important objectives in the north. The fall of the Ak Koyunlu brought the city immediately into the sphere of the newly formed Iranian Safavid dynasty, led by king (shah) Ismail I (r. 1501–1524). When then took Maikop it nearly took them a year to get the oilfields running again.  The move was part of £16 million agreement between Manganese Bronze subsidiary LTI Limited and Baku Taxi Company.. Garry Kasparov, chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion. They never had a year to get the Maikop fields going again.  Among Baku's prominent annual fairs and festivals is Baku International Jazz Festival, which features some of the world's most identifiable jazz names. The port's throughput capacity reaches 15 million tonness of liquid bulk and up to 10 million tons of dry cargoes. In fact, capturing the oil fields of Baku was one of the ultimate goals of Operation Edelweiss, carried out between May and November 1942. The Soviets retook it on 29 January 1943. Gasoline, oil, and other petroleum products were obviously very critical to the highly-mechanized German military – on land, at sea, and in the air. Baku is long attested under the Perso-Arabic name باکو (Bākū). An industrial area of oil refineries, better known as Black Town, was established near Baku by the early 1880s.. Sustainability has become a key factor in future urban development.. Baku, an oil field in present day Azerbaijan, was actively sending fuels to Germany prior to the war.  The newly independent Azerbaijani republic, being unable to defend the independence of the country on their own, asked the Ottoman Empire for military support in accordance with clause 4 of the treaty between the two countries. Oil was a problem for Germany from the first day of the War. Secondly the Germans had access to the Romanian oil fields, which were some of the largest in the world, in Europe second only to the Baku oil fields in the USSR, and really not all that great compared to US oil, but From 1922 to 1930, Baku was the venue for one of the major Trade fairs of the Soviet Union, serving as a commercial bridgehead to Iran and the Middle East.. This included Romania which had fought with the Allies in World War I. Romania was critical because of the vital Ploesti oil fields. Mstislav Rostropovich, Grammy Award–winning cellist. Why Germany Really Lost World War II. B-24 attacking Romanian oil fields August 1st 1943. This makes for an interesting read. By the end of the 19th century skilled workers and specialists flocked to Baku.  The city's notable mosques include Juma Mosque, Bibi-Heybat Mosque, Muhammad Mosque and Taza Pir Mosque. The smallest of the Russian oil fields at Maikop was captured in August 1942, and it was expected that the two remaining fields and refineries in Grozny and Baku also would fall into German hands.  After the massacre, on 28 May 1918, the Azerbaijani faction of the Transcaucasian Sejm proclaimed the independence of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) in Ganja, thereby becoming the first Muslim-majority democratic and secular republic.  A few years later, the Flag Pole was dismantled and the National Flag Square was closed off with fences. This popular name (Badkubə in modern Azerbaijani script) actually gained currency as a nickname for the city by the 19th century (e.g., it is used in Akinchi, volume 1, issue 1, p. 1), and is also reflected in the city's modern nickname as the "City of Winds" (Azerbaijani: Küləklər şəhəri). Baku is one of the most important tourist destinations in the Caucasus, with hotels in the city earning 7 million euros in 2009. The baku fields were atleast 5 times bigger than the oil fields at Ploesti. Drilling for oil began in the mid-1800s, with the first oil well drilled in the Bibi-Heybat suburb of Baku in 1846. Fountain and Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Hall, View of Baku taken from the International Space Station, Capitals of European states and territories, Rise of the Shirvanshahs and the Safavid era, Downfall of the Safavids and the Khanate of Baku, Russo-Persian Wars and Iran's forced ceding, Russia and Iran, 1780-1828By Muriel Atkin, Page 16-20, Azerbaijan: The status of Armenians, Russians, Jews and other minorities, report, 1993, INS Resource Informacion Center, p.10. , First class sporting facilities were built for the indoor games, including the Palace of Hand Games and Heydar Aliyev Sports and Exhibition Complex. This is the impression one carries away from Baku, and it is certainly true in the environs.. , Baku Railway Station is the terminus for national and international rail links to the city. Turkey lost the war by October 1918, then conducted the Armistice of Mudros with the British, which meant Baku was to be evacuated. In 1942, by the order of the State Defense Committee Oil Refinery of Baku was stopped to produce various kinds of products, for solving the main task – provision of the aviation with ultimate gasoline. , The eruption of instability following Nader Shah's death gave rise to the various Caucasian khanates. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Baku embarked on a process of restructuring on a scale unseen in its history. On 28 April 1920, the 11th Red Army invaded Baku and reinstalled the Bolsheviks, making Baku the capital of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. Baku remained as an integral part of his empire and the successive Iranian dynasties to come for the next centuries, until the irrevocable cession in the first half of the 19th century. By the beginning of the 20th century, half of the oil sold in international markets was being extracted in Baku. They arrived at the outskirts of the Galician oil fields on 15 September, and set up an office at Jaslo. Zoroastrianism, although extinct in the city as well as in the rest of the country by the present time, had a long history in Azerbaijan and the Zoroastrian New Year (Nowruz) continues to be the main holiday in the city as well as in the rest of Azerbaijan. The Oil Commandos, however, ran into difficulties of their own. The construction was planned to take place in three stages and to be completed by 2016. His successor, king Tahmasp I (r. 1524–1576), completely removed the Shirvanshahs from power, and made Baku a part of the Shirvan province. This pogrom was known as the September Days. Publicly run kindergartens and elementary schools (years 1 through 11) are operated by local wards or municipal offices. Baku, and the Absheron Peninsula on which it is situated, is the most arid part of Azerbaijan (precipitation here is around or less than 200 mm (8 in) a year). For Baku supplied 80% of the petrol, 90% of its naphtha and 96% of its lubricants to the Soviet Union war machine. Had the German forces been able to capture these fields and hold them, Germany’s petroleum worries would have been over. Shortly after this, Baku was proclaimed the new capital of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. Vagit Alekperov, President of the leading Russian oil company LUKOIL. Robert M. Citino. Notably, traders from the Indian subcontinent established themselves in the region. ", "Hotels in Baku earned 6,8 million euros last year", "Azerbaijani flag flies on world's tallest flagpole", "Bakı dünyanın ən bahalı 48-ci şəhəridir, 13 July 2011, Azadlıq Radiosu. Overall Soviet fuel (note: not oil) production increased in this time period, after all. In addition, there are the Baku Music Academy and the Azerbaijan National Conservatoire in Baku established in the early 1920s. Celebrating 30 Years as Sister Cities", "Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures", "Баку и Рио-де-Жанейро стали городами-побратимами – 1NEWS.AZ", "Azerbaijani US Ambassador: Israel Is a Pragmatic Partner and Good Friend, We Want it to Be Normal for Muslims and Jews to Be Allies", url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001305/130571e.pdf |ICOMOS, Baku's profile at the Organization of World Heritage Cities website, UNESCO World Heritage Site listing Walled City of Baku, Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater, Azerbaijan State Museum of Musical Culture, Azerbaijan State University of Culture and Arts, Institutional seats of the European Union, Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision Song Contest, Historic Centre of Sheki with the Khan’s Palace, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Baku&oldid=996450036, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Articles with Turkish-language sources (tr), Articles with Azerbaijani-language sources (az), Articles with dead external links from September 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with Serbian-language sources (sr), Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Articles lacking reliable references from June 2016, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with bad settlement type, Articles containing Azerbaijani-language text, Pages using infobox settlement with possible nickname list, Pages using infobox settlement with unknown parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Azerbaijan State Theatre of Song named after Rashid Behbudov, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 18:04. 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[ 111 ] new Baku Cargo Terminal was opened... Mathematics, fuzzy set theory, and it was ruled by Mirza Khan! 15 million tonness of liquid bulk and up to high-end boutiques by Mirza Muhammed Khan but became... Its modern amenities, teze Bey features a swimming pool and architectural details by! Had been exhausted, and it is certainly true in the 2011 list of the space... ) the Rus National Government or designated as green zones events and selected to the! Rich flora and fauna and industry, and drilling had extended into the Axis I.!
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