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battle of stones river

Thomas soll im Rat gesagt haben: „Die Armee zieht sich nicht zurück“ oder „Es gibt keinen besseren Ort zum Sterben.“ Am Ende wurde beschlossen, stand zu halten und den Kampf nach Ankunft von Verstärkungen fortzusetzen. 197-203. 177-98. Sensitive to the political requirements that almost no Tennessee ground be yielded to Federal control, he chose the relatively flat area northwest of the politically influential city, straddling the Stones River. Sehr früh in den Morgenstunden des Samstags, dem 3. The loss of Stevenson's 7,500 men would be sorely felt in the coming battle. • Peter Cozzens: No Better Place to Die: The Battle of Stones River. Stones River had the highest percentage of casualties of any major Civil War battle. Die Armeen lagerten nur 640 Meter voneinander entfernt. 151-66; Eicher, p. 424; Daniel, pp. Gen. Richard W. Johnson's division had finished their breakfast. Beatty's brigade at Stone River.jpg 1,596 × 1,222; 942 KB. [27], At 4 p.m. on January 2, Bragg directed Breckinridge's troops to attack Beatty's division, which was occupying the hill on the east side of the river. For the dates of the battle, see, for instance, the. 130-33; McDonough, p. 305; Cozzens, pp. Bragg had the advantage of the detached, but cooperating, cavalry commands under Forrest and Morgan, who raided deeply behind Union lines while Wheeler's cavalry slowed the Union forces with hit-and-run skirmishes. McDonough, pp. But the day was relatively quiet as both armies observed New Year's Day by resting and tending to their wounded. The Confederate threat to Kentucky and Middle Tennessee had been nullified, and Nashville was secure as a major Union supply base for the rest of the war. Der Transfer dieser Truppen an die rechte Flanke begann. 318-20. Während Rosecrans seine Armee zum Gegenschlag vorbereitete, befahl Bragg Oberst John Hunt Morgan mit seiner Kavallerie einen Raid hinter der feindlichen Linie nördlich von Nashville durchzuführen, um die Versorgung der Unionsarmee zu stören. Hardee not… Der vorstehende rechte Frontwinkel der Unionslinie, der durch das Halten der Brigadegenerale Post und Carlin entstanden war, wurde jetzt heftig durch die konföderierten Brigaden McNair und Liddell angegriffen. Bragg befahl John Breckinridge's Division, den Angriff zu erneuern. By 4 p.m., Breckinridge's first two brigades assaulted Hazen in piecemeal attacks and suffered heavy repulses. Street, pp. 215-16; McDonough, pp. The Battle of Stones River or Second Battle of Murfreesboro, was fought from December 31, 1862, to January 2, 1863, in Middle Tennessee, as the culmination of the Stones River Campaign in the Western Theater of the American Civil War.Of the major battles of the Civil War, Stones River had the highest percentage of casualties on both sides. On December 31, each army commander planned to attack his opponent's right flank, but Bragg struck first. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für Battle of Stones River im Online-Wörterbuch dict.cc (Deutschwörterbuch). Repeated attacks on the left flank of the Union line were repulsed by Col. William B. Hazen's brigade in a rocky, 4-acre (16,000 m2) wooded area named "Round Forest" by the locals; it became known as "Hell's Half-Acre". Außer einigen kleineren Scharmützeln und der Versorgung der Verwundeten blieb es am 1. Esposito, text for map 83; McDonough, p. 308; Daniel, p. 219. 30, 42-43, 60; McDonough, pp. "[25], At 3 a.m. on January 1, 1863, Rosecrans revived his original plan and ordered Van Cleve's division (commanded by Col. Samuel Beatty following Van Cleve's wounding the previous day) to cross the river and occupy the heights there, protecting two river crossing sites and providing a good platform for artillery. Unionssoldaten erinnerten sich später daran, dass das Gelände mit den vielen Toten aussah wie die Schlachthöfe von Chicago. 210-15; Kennedy, p. 153; Foote, pp. Ultimate General: Civil War's newest update has added the Battle of Chancellorsville and Stones River. Es wurde später behauptet, dass General Cheatham an diesem Tag angetrunken war und er die Brigaden nicht hätte selbst führen dürfen. The only troops available for such an assault were Breckinridge's, and Bragg ordered him to cross the river, but Breckinridge moved slowly. Street, pp. James S. Negley, Speed S. Fry, and Robert B. Mitchell) moved south along the Wilson Turnpike and the Franklin Turnpike, parallel to the Nashville and Decatur Railroad, then eastward through Nolensville and along the same route used by Crittenden south of the Nashville and Chattanooga. 235-37; Foote, p. 194. Cozzens, pp. Stones River National Battlefield - Now within a sprawling suburb of Nashville, the park today is small by battlefield park standards today (the battle covered 4,000 acres at the time), even though its fighting was certainly as important and tragic as many of the larger sites. He began moving the bulk of Hardee's corps across the river to his left flank in preparation for the next morning's attack. Although Bragg's force was up to 38,000 veteran troops, he made no effort to regain the initiative. Nach Braggs Plan sollte Hardees Corps den rechten Flügel der Union umfassen und ihn zum Stones River zurückdrängen, während die gegnerischen Versorgungsrouten am Nashville Pike und an der Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad abgeschnitten werden sollten. Robert Underwood Johnson / Clarence Clough Buel (Hrsg. Beide Seiten verbrachten den 1. He had expected Rosecrans to attack on December 30, but when that attack did not come, his plan was to drive Hardee's corps and the cavalry under Brig. Davis refused to relieve either Bragg or the rebellious generals. 118-20; Welcher, p. 813. Urbana, IL 1990 This is a playful modification of the expression "Brag is a good dog, but Holdfast is a better," which Rosecrans may have read in Charles Dickens's 1861 novel. Januar noch ruhig. Die ersten beiden Brigaden von Breckinridge griffen gegen die Front Hazens an, zogen sich aber sofort nach schweren Verlusten zurück. Januar, gegen 2 Uhr morgens, fand in Braggs Hauptquartier ein Kriegsrat statt. Bragg erkannte, dass Rosecrans nicht vorhatte, sich zurückzuziehen, und weiterhin Verstärkung erhalten würde. 1. 292-94; Connelly, pp. Nach dem Sieg der Unionsstreitkräfte in der Schlacht von Perryville (8. 69-70; Street, p. 99. 68-69; McPherson, p. 580; Foote, p. 86; Street, p. 99; Hess, p. 199; Lamers, p. 208. [16], At dawn on December 31, about 6 a.m., Confederate William J. Hardee struck first, attacking the Union's right flank with the division of Maj. Gen. John P. McCown, before many in Union Brig. General Augustus Willich wurde dabei gefangen genommen. Später am Abend griff General Thomas das Zentrum der konföderierten Linie an, als Reaktion auf den ständigen Beschuss seiner Positionen durch Scharfschützen. Mendenhall deployed his guns perfectly—45 arrayed hub-to-hub on the ridge overlooking McFadden's Ford and 12 more guns about a mile to the southwest, which could provide enfilading fire, completely commanding the opposite bank and heights beyond—and saved the day for Rosecrans. Sheridans Linien waren nach dem Anschluss an General James Negleys Division an der Baum- und Felsenformation entlang der McFadden Lane wieder fest verankert. Am 29. (Part of Rosecrans's reluctance to move from Nashville was the inexperience of his cavalry forces in comparison to their Confederate counterparts.) [32] Four brigadier generals were killed or mortally wounded: Confederate James E. Rains and Roger W. Hanson; Union Edward N. Kirk and Joshua W. Despite this action, the main battle is generally accepted to have ended on January 2. 177-98; Welcher, p. 817. Hardee noted afterward that "The field of battle offered no particular advantages for defense." Worsham, pp. Stones River National Battlefield includes over 600 acres of preserved battlefield and a cemetery honoring those lost in one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War. 817-18; Esposito, text for map 83; McDonough, pp. Cozzens, pp. On the Union side, Major General William S. Rosecrans led 43,400 men while Confederate General Braxton Bragg led 37,712 men. Corps) sowie derer Kavallerietruppen. Vor Sonnenuntergang standen zwei Drittel von Rosecrans Armee an der Nashville Road, am folgenden Morgen hatte er etwa 43.000 Soldaten konzentriert. The Battle of Stones River, fought between December 31, 1862, and January 2, 1863, was a tactical draw but proved to be a strategic northern victory. It contains the nation's oldest intact Civil War monument, erected by William Hazen's brigade at Hell's Half Acre. Two more brigades arrived, and they were sent in, reinforced by other elements of Polk's corps. However, Rosecrans took ample time to reorganize and train his forces (particularly his cavalry) and resupply his army. L ibrary Journal: Until now only three book-length studies of the bloody Tennessee battle near Stone's River existed, all old and none satisfactory by current historical standards. Die Linie der Union waren jetzt entlang des Wilkinson Turnpike in einen rechten Winkel zurückgebogen. The Stones River Battlefield and Park Association was chartered on April 28, 1896, after the establishment of Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park increased interest in preserving significant Civil War battlefields. When Bragg ordered him to attack to his front—so that some use could be made of his corps—Breckinridge moved forward and was embarrassed to find out that there were no Union troops opposing him. [10], Murfreesboro was a small town in the Stones River Valley, a former state capital named for a colonel in the American Revolutionary War, Hardy Murfree. But his decision to retreat allowed his enemies to charge that once again Bragg had lost his nerve. Bragg's left flank was weak at the start, and Rosecrans could have attacked there when he arrived and wheeled left, around the flank and directly into the town of Murfreesboro, but he did not know the full disposition of Bragg's forces because of the skillful screening of the Confederate cavalry during the Union march. [35], Rosecrans spent five and a half months reinforcing Murfreesboro. Am Vorabend der Schlacht kam es zu einen Wettbewerb zwischen den gegnerischen Militärkapellen, am Ende des Konzerts stimmten Veteranen beider Armeen, über die Front hinweg, gemeinsam das Lied „Home Sweet Home“ (Heim, süßes Heim) an. Gen. Philip Sheridan in the right center of the line prevented a total collapse and the Union assumed a tight defensive position backing up to the Nashville Turnpike. Bragg's plan had had a fundamental flaw: although his objective was to cut Rosecrans's line of communication (the Nashville Pike), his attack drove the Union defenders to concentrate at that point. 79-80, 109-23, 221; Eicher, pp. McCook, der erwartete, dass der nächste Tag mit dem Generalangriff Crittendens beginnen würde, hielt zahlreiche Lagerfeuer in seiner Gegend, in der Hoffnung, die Konföderierten hinsichtlich der Stärke an dieser Flanke täuschen zu können. Whiters Brigaden unter Manigault und Loomis griffen gegen 8 Uhr an, mussten sich jedoch zurückziehen. Recommended Reading: No Better Place to Die: THE BATTLE OF STONES RIVER (Civil War Trilogy). Dies war die einzige Aktion an diesem Tag. By nightfall, two thirds of Rosecrans's army was in position along the Nashville Turnpike, and by the next day Rosecrans's army numbered about 41,000 and Bragg's 35,000. By 4:30 p.m., the battle was finished.[22]. Gen. Milo S. Hascall sent the 3rd Kentucky to the Round Forest as reinforcements. Battle of Stones River: Union General Rosecrans Versus Confederate General Bragg Steadily the rain had pelted down all day, and now as wintry winds and darkness ushered in another miserable night at the mercy of the elements, the battle-tried veterans of Perryville, both Blue and Gray, struggled to find what fitful sleep they could. Gen. Samuel P. Carter raided the upper Tennessee Valley from Manchester, Kentucky. [20], By 11 a.m., Sheridan's ammunition ran low, and his division pulled back, which opened a gap that Hardee exploited. The new line was roughly perpendicular to the original line, in a small half oval with its back to the river. 145-55; Cozzens, pp. Gen. Horatio P. Van Cleve's division crossing the river at 7 a.m., and instead rushed reinforcements to his own right flank. Ich habe den Befehl gegeben, den Feind an Ihrer Front anzugreifen und ich erwarten, dass er befolgt wird. Rosecrans occupied Murfreesboro on January 5, but made no attempt to pursue Bragg. The Battle of Stones River was fought December 31, 1862, to January 2, 1863, during the American Civil War (1861-1865). Although the battle itself was inconclusive, the Union Army's repulse of two Confederate attacks and the subsequent Confederate withdrawal were a much-needed boost to Union morale after the defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg, and it dashed Confederate aspirations for control of Middle Tennessee. A stout defense by the division of Brig. Bragg räumte Murfreesboro um 22:00 Uhr und begann sich nach Tullahoma zurückzuziehen. Rosecrans ließ alle geplanten Bewegungen an seinem rechten Flügel stoppen, nachdem Crittenden bereits um 7:00 Uhr seine Division Von Cleve über den Stones River auf das östliche Ufer gehen lassen wollte. “ Die Divisionen von Thomas führte im Zentrum sogar einen kleinen Gegenangriff durch, infolgedessen endete die Schlacht am 31. Nachdem die Hälfte der Mannschaft ausgefallen war, fielen mehrere Artillerie-Batterien von Johnsons Division in die Hände der Südstaatler. Einige Generäle schlugen vor, sich besser zurückzuziehen, bevor sie vollständig von Nashville abgeschnitten werden würden. Late that evening, Thomas attacked the center of the Confederate line with two regiments in reaction to constant enemy sharpshooting against troops in his division under Lovell H. Rousseau. The odds were closer than those figures would indicate. 295-96; Cozzens, pp. The armies collided along Stones River on New Years Eve. Staaten von Amerika Konfoderierte 1861-4 Konföderierte Staaten, 13.249gefallen: 1.730verwundet: 7.802vermisst/gefangen: 3.717, 10.266gefallen: 1.294verwundet: 7.945vermisst/gefangen: 1.027. John Mendenhall. Januar zu erneuern, ermöglichte es Rosecrans, seine Position weiter auszubauen und weitere Verstärkungen heranzuziehen. We occupy [the] whole field and shall follow him. Dezember zum Gefecht von Hartsville, wo Morgan die Brigade unter Absalom B. Moore überraschte und über 1800 Gefangene mitnehmen konnte. Rosecrans opposed this view and was strongly supported by Thomas and Crittenden. Das Gelände war weiträumig mit dichtem Wald bedeckt, es war leicht, Nahrung für die Armee zu bekommen und von hier aus konnte man die Straße nach Chattanooga blockieren. Erst am 5. Convoys of wounded had to travel under heavy escort to be protected from the cavalry, and Wheeler interpreted these movements as preparations for a retreat, and he reported such to Bragg. 808-809, 818-19; Esposito, text for map 77; Cozzens, pp. 421-22; Hess, pp. Die Schlacht am Stones River war im Gesamtergebnis ein taktisches Unentschieden, aber nach dem Rückzug der Konföderierten ein klarer strategischer Sieg der Union. Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, the Union commander at Perryville, was equally passive and refused to attack Bragg. The battle was tactically inconclusive. Bragg beschloss den Teil jenes Ovals der feindlichen Stellungen anzugreifen, der sich nach Südosten erstreckte und von der Brigade Hazen gehalten wurde. Rosecrans ordered his men to be ready to attack after breakfast, but Bragg ordered an attack at dawn.[13]. On December 26, the day Rosecrans marched from Nashville, a small force under Brig. Walker, on the Friday evening of the battle of Stone River ... - sketched by A.E. In the battle, Confederate General Braxton Bragg and as many as 35,000 soldiers withdrew from Kentucky and took defensive positions in the city of Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Dezember um 16:30 Uhr. Präsident Abraham Lincoln war unzufrieden mit der langsamen Operationen von Don Carlos Buell Er hatte sein Hauptziel nicht erreicht, er konnte den Feind nicht von seinen rückwärtigen Verbindungen abschneiden und sah sich gezwungen nochmals anzugreifen. Die Kavallerie unter Brigadegeneral David S. Stanley und Col. John Kennett gingen den Kolonnen als Vorhut voraus. [26], In the rear, Wheeler's cavalry continued to harass the Union line of communication on the turnpike back to Nashville. There, Union troops led by General William S. Rosecrans forced the retreat of the Confederates under General Braxton Bragg.… Battle of Stones River The massive earthenworks "Fort Rosecrans" was built there and served as a supply depot for the remainder of the war. Just as at Perryville, Bragg seemed to change under stress from a bold and aggressive attacker to a hesitant and cautious retreater. 309-16; Street, pp. Sheridan hatte sich durch den Zedernwald, dem „The Slaughter Pen“, zurückgekämpft, um nicht überflügelt zu werden. Welcher, pp. Braggs Abneigung, den Angriff der Konföderierten am 1. 93-94. Im Morgengrauen des 31. His army, joined with Smith's Army of Kentucky and together renamed the Army of Tennessee as of November 20, took up a defensive position northwest of the city along the West Fork of the Stones River. [6] Bragg had to deal with a command problem that became typical for him during the war—a virtual revolt of his senior generals, who petitioned Jefferson Davis to relieve him (in favor of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, the commander of all armies in the Western Theater). Although Bragg's newly combined force was up to 38,000 veteran troops, he made no effort to regain the initiative. Englische Wikipedia: Battle of Stones River, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Schlacht_am_Stones_River&oldid=204960879, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“, Breckinridges Division unter Generalmajor. A day of heavy fighting brought significant casualties, and the suffering was compounded by the frigid weather. Rosecrans hatte seinen Männern befohlen, nach dem Frühstück zum Angriff bereit zu sein. Generalleutnant Hardee hielt den Moment für die Ewigkeit fest, indem er erklärte: „Der Feind lag außerhalb der Reichweite unserer Kanonen, sicher geschützt hinter der starken Verteidigung des Eisenbahndamms, mit weit offenen Feldern dazwischen, die von überlegener Artillerie beherrscht wurde. Als am Abend des 3. As Rosecrans raced across the battlefield directing units, seeming ubiquitous to his men, his uniform was covered with blood from his friend and chief of staff, Col. Julius Garesché, beheaded by a cannonball while riding alongside. Thomas, in the center, was ordered to make a limited attack and act as the pivot for Crittenden's wheel. Bragg's forces were situated with Leonidas Polk's corps on the west side of the river, William J. Hardee's men on the east. The 10,000 Confederates who massed on their left attacked in one massive wave. Bragg’s 35,000 men were arranged into two corps of infantry. Gen. Charles Cruft verteidigten einem herausragenden Frontvorsprung, dessen Eroberung den Konföderierten vielleicht den Sieg gesichert hätte. Of all the major battles of the American Civil War, the Battle of Stones River had the highest percentage of casualties. 191-92; Street, pp. Auf dem damaligen Schlachtfeld wurde das Stone River National Battlefield & Cemetery eingerichtet mit vielen Kanonen und Monumenten an den historischen Schauplätzen. On the afternoon of January 2 nd, Breckenridge attacked Beatty with 5,000 men in four brigades, including the Orphan Brigade of Kentuckians, commanded by Robert W. Hanson. John C. Breckinridge, Patrick R. Cleburne, and John P. McCown) and Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk (divisions of Maj. Gens. But the Confederates would inevitably unwind like a ball of string as they advanced. After the Battle of Perryville on October 8, 1862, Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg's Army of Mississippi abandoned its invasion of Kentucky and withdrew to Harrodsburg, Kentucky, where it was joined by Maj. Gen. Kirby Smith's army of 10,000 on October 10. Nachdem die Angriffe am linken Flügel ins Stocken gerieten, beschloss Bragg um 10 Uhr auch auf der anderen Seite der Front loszuschlagen. Dezember abends erreichten die Unionstruppen das nordwestliche Vorfeld von Murfreesboro, wo die konföderierte Tennessee-Armee unter General Bragg mit 37.700 Mann an der Eisenbahnlinie nach Nashville eine Verteidigungsstellung eingenommen hatte. [17], Although meeting stiff resistance, Hardee drove the Union troops back three miles (5 km) to the railroad and the Nashville Pike by 10 a.m., where Johnson was able to rally them. Cozzens, pp. Es wurden zwei Korpskommandos gebildet, welche den Generalleutnants William Hardee und Leonidas Polk anvertraut wurden. In just a few hours, the fields and cedar thickets around the Tennessee village of Murfreesboro w… Whiters Truppen griffen Sheridans rechte Flanke an der Naht zur Division Davis an, doch drei Angriffe wurden hintereinander abgeschlagen. Like a snowball, the Federals would pick up strength from the debris of battle if they retreated in good order. Thomas has been quoted by different sources in the council meeting as saying either "This army does not retreat" or "There's no better place to die." Then Cheatham, with his reserve division, hit Sheridan's front as Cleburne struck his flank. The two armies were in parallel lines, about four miles (six km) long, oriented from southwest to northeast. Januar besetzten Rosecrans Truppen Murfreesboro, versuchten jedoch nicht, Braggs Truppen nachzusetzen. An der zweiten Angriffsphase nahm auch Polks Corps mit Cheathams und Whiters Division teil. The center wing of 13,500 men under Maj. Gen. George Henry Thomas (divisions of Maj. Gen. Lovell H. Rousseau and Brig. und ersetzte ihn am 24. My poor Orphans. Short limestone outcroppings, separated by narrow cracks as if rows of teeth, impeded the movement of wagons and artillery. Of the major battles of the war, Stones River had the highest percentage of casualties on both sides. Um 16:45 Uhr startete die Unionsdivision von General Negley einen Gegenangriff und die Südstaatler begannen sich darauf zurückzuziehen. [7], On the Union side, President Abraham Lincoln had become frustrated with Buell's passivity and replaced him with Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, victor of the recent battles of Iuka and Corinth. [21], Bragg planned to attack the Union left, a portion of the oval line facing southeast, manned by Hazen's brigade. Street, pp. The Battle of Stones River or Second Battle of Murfreesboro (in the South, simply the Battle of Murfreesboro), was fought from December 31, 1862, to January 2, 1863, in Middle Tennessee, as the culmination of the Stones River Campaign in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. What saved the Union from total destruction that morning was the foresight of Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan (McCook's wing), who anticipated an early attack and had the troops of his division up and ready in the center of the right half of the line by 4 a.m. Withers hit Sheridan's right flank first (and Davis's left) but was repulsed in three separate charges. 320-21; Cozzens, pp. The Battle of Stones River (also known as the Second Battle of Murfreesboro) was a battle fought from December 31, 1862, to January 2, 1863, in Middle Tennessee, as the culmination of the Stones River Campaign in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. Bragg sent a telegram to Richmond before he went to bed: "The enemy has yielded his strong position and is falling back. 299-301; Hess p. 215; Eicher, pp. Die Mitte mit 13.500 Mann unter Generalmajor George Henry Thomas marschierte südlich entlang der Wilson und Franklin Turnpike, parallel zur Nashville und Decatur Eisenbahnlinie, dann nach Osten durch Nolensville und entlang derselben Route, die Crittenden südlich von Nashville und Chattanooga benutzte. Street, James Jr., and the Editors of Time-Life Books. Der linke Flügel mit 14.500 Mann unter Generalmajor Thomas L. Crittenden nahm eine Route, die parallel der Eisenbahn von Nashville nach Chattanooga verlief und durch La Vergne und südlich von Smyrna führte. Braggs Armee hatte Polks Corps am Westufer und Hardees Corps am Ostufer des Stones River zum Widerstand positioniert. Die konföderierten Kavallerie-Divisionen unter Forrest und Morgan operierten in dieser Zeit im Rücken der Union, verursachten schwere Schäden an den Verbindungen und bedrohten die gegnerischen Nachschublinien. ... God has granted us a happy New Year. None of the troops were ordered to construct field fortifications. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Battles of the Western Theater of the American Civil War, Union victories of the American Civil War, List of American Civil War battles#Major land battles, Troop Movement Maps (Stones River National Battlefield), Maps of the Union approach to Murfreesboro (Stones River National Battlefield), Official Records: The Battle of Stones River (Murfreesboro) December 31 - January 2, 1863 (Civilwarhome website), Animated history of the Perryville and Stones River Campaigns, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Stones_River?oldid=4298770, Crittenden, Thomas L. "The Union Left at Stone's River." The separation of the wings was designed to conduct a turning movement against Hardee at Triune, but when the Federal march began, Bragg moved Hardee back to Murfreesboro to avoid a confrontation. A Union division under the command of James S. Negley (Thomas's wing) led a counterattack at 4:45 p.m., and the Confederate troops retreated. 171-72; Street, pp. Das Korps von Generalmajor Leonidas Polk, dessen Männer nach dem Kampf mit Sheridans Truppen noch erschöpft waren, starteten eine Reihe von Angriffen, welche die Linien der Union nicht erschüttern konnten. [3] Considering that only about 76,400 men were engaged,[2] this was the highest percentage of killed and wounded of any major battle in the Civil War, higher in absolute numbers than the infamous bloodbaths at Shiloh and Antietam earlier that year. All through the war it was a center for strong Confederate sentiment, and Bragg and his men were warmly welcomed and entertained during the month of December. Cheatham's assault was sluggish and piecemeal; observers claimed he had been drinking heavily and was unable to command his units effectively. Es wäre Torheit gewesen und nicht Tapferkeit, sie in dieser Position anzugreifen. Schließlich, als sich der letzte konföderierte Soldat aus der Reichweite der gegnerischen Geschütze zurückgezogen hatte, war die Schlacht vorbei, obwohl sporadische Schüsse noch die ganze Nacht und den nächsten Morgen andauerten. The battle of Stones River was devastating for both sides and, of all the major Civil War battles, this had the highest percentage of casualties suffered. The Battle of Stones River. Sie dauerte vom 31. 30-33; McDonough, p. 288. Hardee's Corps was initially placed in Triune, about 20 miles (32 km) to the west, Polk's on the west bank of the river, and a detached division from Hardee's Corps under Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge on the low hills east of the river. The right wing of 16,000 men under Maj. Gen. Alexander M. McCook (divisions of Brig. Battle of Stones River The Battle of Stones River was fought between December 31, 1862 and January 2, 1863. Eicher, p. 421; Cozzens, pp. A massive assault by the corps of Maj. Gen. William J. Hardee, followed by that of Leonidas Polk, overran the wing commanded by Maj. Gen. Alexander M. McCook. Facing a larger Union force (42,000 Union soldiers to 35,000 Confederates), Bragg launched an attack in bitterly cold morning fog against the Yankees right flank. Wheelers Kavallerie deutete die Bewegungen der Union als Vorbereitung für einen Rückzug und gab seine Annahmen an Bragg weiter, der darauf für nächsten Tag den Befehl zum Angriff gab. It was located in a rich agricultural region from which Bragg planned to provision his army and a position that he intended to use to block a potential Federal advance on Chattanooga. Street, p. 159, repeats Livermore's effectives number. On December 29, Wheeler and 2,500 of his men rode completely around the Union army, destroying supply wagons and capturing reserve ammunition in Rosecrans's trains. 10, 11, 29. In. Some of his generals felt that the Union army had been defeated and recommended a retreat before they were entirely cut off. It was located in a rich agricultural region from which Bragg planned to provision his army and a position that he intended to use to block a potential Federal advance on Chattanooga. His principal subordinates advised him to retreat. The relatively small battle that followed Morgan's surprise attack was an embarrassing Union defeat, resulting in many captured Union supplies and soldiers. Die Männer der US-Division von General Richard Johnson kochten gerade ihr Frühstück, als das Feuer der Vorposten den Alarm auslöste. His neighboring Union division to the left, under Brig. Eicher, pp 419-20; McDonough, p. 291; Welcher, pp. 172-76; Eicher, p. 427; McDonough, p. 307; Street, p. 133; Foote, pp. 305-307; Cozzens, p. A72-73; Lamers, pp. The Confederates had been thrown back in the east, west, and in the Trans-Mississippi. Januar um 16:00 Uhr befahl Bragg der Division Breckinridge mit Beattys Truppen, die einen Hügel an der Ostseite des Flusses besetzt hielten, erneut anzugreifen um die Unionisten vom besetzten Hügel über den Fluss zurückzudrängen. Mendenhall platzierte 46 Kanonen auf dem Kamm, 12 weitere Geschützte verteilte er eine Meile davon mit Front nach Südwesten. The attack failed a second time. He declared that it had to be held, "even if it cost the last man we had." Kennedy, p. 154, cites 44,000 Union, 34,000 Confederate. Bragg attempted to continue the assault with the corps of Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge, but the troops were slow in arriving and their multiple piecemeal attacks failed. 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